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The light-emitting SMD diode is the simplest kind of semiconductor equipment
Editor:    Hit: 46  Date: 2012-9-26
The light-emitting SMD diode is the simplest kind of semiconductor equipment

Light-emitting diodes commonly known as LEDs, although they are well known, but it is the real hero in the electronic world. They are able to complete the work of dozens of different, and their presence can be found in a variety of devices. They are widely used, for example, they can be composed of the digital electronic watch dial, transfer information from the remote control for the lighting of the watch dial, and when the device is turned on you alert. If they are assembled together, can form images on a large TV screen, or used to illuminate traffic lights.

In essence, the LED only a easily assembled miniature bulb to electronic circuits。 But they are not like an ordinary incandescent lamp, they do not contain Incinerate filament, nor becomes particularly hot. They are able to emit light, only the results of the electron movement within the semiconductor material, and their life span as long as with the ordinary transistor.

SMD diode is the easiest a semiconductor equipment. The generalized a semiconductor refers to a material having a variable conductivity. Most semiconductor doped with an impurity (atom) of another material is a poor conductor formed, and the incorporation of impurities in the process called doping.

LED, a typical conductor material is aluminum arsenide gallium (AlGaAs). In pure aluminum gallium arsenide, each atom with the adjacent atoms links intact, there is no excess of free electrons (negatively charged particles) conduction current. After the doping of the material by the incorporation of atoms to break the original balance, materials or generate free electrons or holes available for electronic mobile. Whether the increase in the number of free electrons or hole the increase in the number of, will improve conductivity of the material.

Semiconductor with excess electrons is known as the N-type material, negatively charged particles it contains excess tape. The free electrons can be moved from the region with negative charge with the positively charged region in the N-type material

Semiconductor with excess holes is referred to as P-type material, because it is on the conductive effect is equivalent to contain positively charged particles. The electrons can be transferred between the hole-moved from the region with negative charge with the positively charged region。 Therefore, the hole itself is like moving from the region of positive charge to the region with negative charge.

An SMD diode connected to the same section of the N-type material by a P-type material made ​​with both ends attached to the electrode. This structure can only conduct current in one direction。 When no voltage is applied across the diode, the N-type material in the movement of electrons will move between layers of the PN junction (Junction), to fill the holes in the P-type material, and the formation of a depletion region。 In the depletion region, the semiconductor material to return to its original insulating state - that all the holes have been filled, and thus neither free electrons in the depletion region, and no space for electrons move, the charge can not flow.

In order to make the depletion region disappear, must make the electrons moving from the N-type region to the P-type region, while a hole in the opposite direction to move。 For this, you can be connected to the negative electrode of the one end of the diode N-type circuit, while the end is connected with the cathode of the P type。 The free electrons in the N-type material is a negative electrode exclusion, and is attracted by the positive electrode; the holes in the P-type material will move along the opposite direction. If the voltage between the two electrodes is high enough, the depletion region electrons will be Release hole, thus the guide to the ability to move freely again. Disappearance of the depletion region, charge through the diode.

When the circuit of the negative electrode and the N-type layer, the positive electrode and the p-type layer is connected to the electron and hole migration, whereas the depletion region will disappear.

If you are trying to make a current flow in opposite directions along the P-type terminal is connected to the circuit negative, N-terminal is connected to the positive electrode, then the current will not flow。 With the negatively charged electrons in the N-type material will be attracted to the positive electrode; positively charged holes in the P-type material would be attracted to the negative electrode. Since each of the holes and electrons along the wrong direction, PN junction will not current, the depletion region will expand.

When a positive electrode of the circuit connected to the N-type layer, a negative electrode connected to the P-type layer, the free electrons will be gathered at one end of the patch diode, while the hole will be gathered at the other end. Depletion region will expand.

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